Donal Skehan with his Swedish wife-to-be Sophie Larrson
Dock Kitchen

Donal Skehan shares some hidden gems from London’s flourishing food scene… giving us an appetite and wanderlust in quick succession.


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London’s wonderful and vibrant food scene is a constant source of inspiration for me, and thankfully my work takes me there quite a lot. With such a wide selection of restaurants and cafés, it can be hard to choose. I have an ever-growing list of places to try, but I want to share just a selection of the ones that get me excited about a city that has so much to offer.


A pop-up street food stall at various food markets throughout London, run by a group of Irish lads, serving up some of the best fried chicken the city has to offer. Their point of difference: it’s served in a delicate and sweet brioche bun with chipotle mayonnaise, fresh guacamole and crispy bacon, and they marinade all the chicken in Irish buttermilk. Best eaten outdoors with lots of napkins! Ours were guzzled late one Friday night in the summer, beside a thumping live band and with a mojito in the other hand. Find them on Facebook.

The Dairy

A tip from London-based Irish food blogger, Niamh Shields, brought me to The Dairy earlier this year, and I’ve been back a number of times since. The interiors are rustic and vintage with low lighting, old school chairs and salvaged fittings. The food is seasonal and subtly impressive: freshly-baked sourdough bread loaves, served warm in burlap sacks with a side of rich, whipped bone marrow butter, set the scene for dishes like goats’ cheese with courgettes and basil, drizzled with honey from their own beehive; chicken oysters with crispy chicken skins and burnt kale; velvety soft pork belly served with heritage carrots and cavalo nero, all garnished with leaves and vegetables from their rooftop garden. A must-visit. Clapham Old Town. www.the-dairy.co.uk

The Frenchie

The Frenchie is another street food stall that is incredibly popular in London at the moment. The queue is always long and filled with folks wanting to get their hands on the drool-worthy duck confit burgers, rich with red onion marmalade, served on a brioche bun and finished off with some crispy duck “scratchings” for good measure. The tough decision you will have to make is whether you want yours served with smoked cheddar, goats’ cheese and truffle honey, or blue cheese. Deliciously indulgent. At food markets across London. Find them on Facebook.

Dock Kitchen

Stevie Parle is an excellent food writer and an inspiring chef, who uses ideas and recipes from his travels across the world and showcases them on the vibrant menu at the Dock Kitchen. Dishes like chicken livers, boasting seven spices and dredged in sweet sticky pomegranate molasses and grilled quail with Middle Eastern za’atar, served with bulgar wheat pilaf, excite the senses. They’re all greedily mopped up with freshly-baked flatbreads, made in a traditional tandoor oven. Well worth a visit. Portobello Docks. www.dockkitchen.co.uk

The Clove Club

A recommendation from Little Paris Kitchen’s Rachel Khoo and one I can’t wait to get back to. It’s a sophisticated restaurant and bar in the old town hall in East London’s Shoreditch area, which serves food that offers a tremendous showcase of seasonal British ingredients. With a clever menu that celebrates produce like wild trout, wood pigeon, Cornish skate and Hereford beef, the Clove Club delivers a refreshing take on British cuisine. www.thecloveclub.com

Leila’s Shop

While I was staying in London this summer, I opted for Air B’n'B accommodation, a stone’s throw away from the effortlessly trendy Leila’s Shop Café, just off Shoreditch High Street. My Saturday morning ritual was to eat their baked eggs with prosciutto and sourdough bread. Simple and delicious. The café offers up wholesome, simple salads and sandwiches, using the brilliant selection of organic produce that is beautifully displayed outside the shop everyday. A wonderful bit of food tranquility amongst the bustle of the city. Find them on Facebook.


A real food revelation this summer was Peruvian food. It’s a cuisine that is creating quite a buzz worldwide. A solid introduction for me came at the bar in Ceviche, a trendy Peruvian restaurant in Soho. After easing us in gently with a frothy and sharp Pisco Sour, a cocktail originating from Peru’s capital city, Lima, the bartender ran through the menu. We tucked into fresh seabass ceviche with tiger’s milk (a lip-smacking mix of lime juice, chilli paste, garlic, coriander and ginger), and sweet potato and grilled tender beef heart on skewers marinated in aji panca (a Peruvian chilli pepper). This was served with choclo corn kernels (a giant corn that is starchier with more of a nutty taste). www.cevicheuk.com

River Café

After watching Ruth Rogers and the late Rose Gray speak passionately about Italian food in their highly-acclaimed series, The Italian Kitchen, in the late 90s, I knew one of my first visits to London would have to take in a meal at the River Café. Almost a rite of passage for anyone with a serious interest in food, my first experience there did not disappoint. Peach Bellinis, sweet and creamy courgette and buffalo mozzarella ravioli, chargrilled smoky and sweet leg of lamb, served with creamy and peppery horseradish and, to finish, the famous Chocolate Nemesis cake. Epic. Thames Wharf, Rainville Road. www.rivercafe.co.uk

The Marshmallowists

The Marshmallowists have been on the London street food scene for the last couple of years with their striking displays of colourful chunky squares of handmade marshmallows. I spotted them in Portobello Market one Saturday morning in the summer and gorged on a selection of their well thought out flavours, including strawberry and basil, pear and elderflower, and blueberry and Portobello gin. Now, I always make a beeline if I spot them. www.themarshmallowists.co.uk

Fernandez Wells

A lot of my time in London is spent filling time before or after meetings, and one spot that I always find myself plonked in is Fernandez and Wells, a small café in Soho – perfect for people-watching and good coffee. There is a vibrant array of sandwiches made with sourdough bread with fillings like Dorset ham and Westcombe cheddar, beef and horseradish and Bologna mortadella, prosciutto, finocchiona, Parmesan and aoili. Don’t leave without trying the pasteis de nata, a flaky Portuguese custard tart. www.fernandezandwells.com

Irish Independent

Article source: http://www.independent.ie/life/travel/europe/donal-skehan-londons-flourishing-food-scene-is-calling-30594154.html


Above and below: Revised flow chart of European ancestry incorporating the new data about Ancient North Eurasians (ANE), West European hunter-gatherers (WHG), early European farmers (EEF) and Basal Eurasians. (David Reich) Please click to enlarge:

New Branch Added to European Family Tree
Genetic analysis reveals Europeans descended from at least three ancient groups
By STEPHANIE DUTCHEN • Harvard University

The setting: Europe, about 7,500 years ago.

Agriculture was sweeping in from the Near East, bringing early farmers into contact with hunter-gatherers who had already been living in Europe for tens of thousands of years.

Genetic and archaeological research in the last 10 years has revealed that almost all present-day Europeans descend from the mixing of these two ancient populations. But it turns out that’s not the full story.

Researchers at Harvard Medical School and the University of Tübingen in Germany have now documented a genetic contribution from a third ancestor: Ancient North Eurasians. This group appears to have contributed DNA to present-day Europeans as well as to the people who travelled across the Bering Strait into the Americas more than 15,000 years ago.

“Prior to this paper, the models we had for European ancestry were two-way mixtures. We show that there are three groups,” said David Reich, professor of genetics at HMS and co-senior author of the study.

“This also explains the recently discovered genetic connection between Europeans and Native Americans,” Reich added. “The same Ancient North Eurasian group contributed to both of them.”

The research team also discovered that ancient Near Eastern farmers and their European descendants can trace much of their ancestry to a previously unknown, even older lineage called the Basal Eurasians.

The study was published online Sept. 17 in Nature.

Peering into the past

To probe the ongoing mystery of Europeans’ heritage and their relationships to the rest of the world, the international research team—including co-senior author Johannes Krause, professor of archaeo- and paleogenetics at the University of Tübingen and co-director of the new Max Planck Institute for History and the Sciences in Jena, Germany—collected and sequenced the DNA of more than 2,300 present-day people from around the world and of nine ancient humans from Sweden, Luxembourg and Germany.

The ancient bones came from eight hunter-gatherers who lived about 8,000 years ago, before the arrival of farming, and one farmer from about 7,000 years ago.

The researchers also incorporated into their study genetic sequences previously gathered from ancient humans of the same time period, including early farmers such as Ötzi “the Iceman.”

“There was a sharp genetic transition between the hunter-gatherers and the farmers, reflecting a major movement of new people into Europe from the Near East,” said Reich.

Ancient North Eurasian DNA wasn’t found in either the hunter-gatherers or the early farmers, suggesting the Ancient North Eurasians arrived in the area later, he said.

“Nearly all Europeans have ancestry from all three ancestral groups,” said Iosif Lazaridis, a research fellow in genetics in Reich’s lab and first author of the paper. “Differences between them are due to the relative proportions of ancestry. Northern Europeans have more hunter-gatherer ancestry—up to about 50 percent in Lithuanians—and Southern Europeans have more farmer ancestry.”

Lazaridis added, “The Ancient North Eurasian ancestry is proportionally the smallest component everywhere in Europe, never more than 20 percent, but we find it in nearly every European group we’ve studied and also in populations from the Caucasus and Near East. A profound transformation must have taken place in West Eurasia” after farming arrived.

When this research was conducted, Ancient North Eurasians were a “ghost population”—an ancient group known only through the traces it left in the DNA of present-day people. Then, in January, a separate group of archaeologists found the physical remains of two Ancient North Eurasians in Siberia. Now, said Reich, “We can study how they’re related to other populations.”

Room for more

The team was able to go only so far in its analysis because of the limited number of ancient DNA samples. Reich thinks there could easily be more than three ancient groups who contributed to today’s European genetic profile.

He and his colleagues found that the three-way model doesn’t tell the whole story for certain regions of Europe. Mediterranean groups such as the Maltese, as well as Ashkenazi Jews, had more Near East ancestry than anticipated, while far northeastern Europeans such as Finns and the Saami, as well as some northern Russians, had more East Asian ancestry in the mix.

The most surprising part of the project for Reich, however, was the discovery of the Basal Eurasians.

“This deep lineage of non-African ancestry branched off before all the other non-Africans branched off from one another,” he said. “Before Australian Aborigines and New Guineans and South Indians and Native Americans and other indigenous hunter-gatherers split, they split from Basal Eurasians. This reconciled some contradictory pieces of information for us.”

Next, the team wants to figure out when the Ancient North Eurasians arrived in Europe and to find ancient DNA from the Basal Eurasians.

“We are only starting to understand the complex genetic relationship of our ancestors,” said co-author Krause. “Only more genetic data from ancient human remains will allow us to disentangle our prehistoric past.”

“There are important open questions about how the present-day people of the world got to where they are,” said Reich, who is a Howard Hughes Medical Investigator. “The traditional way geneticists study this is by analyzing present-day people, but this is very hard because present-day people reflect many layers of mixture and migration.

“Ancient DNA sequencing is a powerful technology that allows you to go back to the places and periods where important demographic events occurred,” he said. “It’s a great new opportunity to learn about human history.”

This project was supported in part by the National Cancer Institute (HHSN26120080001E and NIH/NCI Intramural Research Program), National Institute of General Medical Sciences (GM100233 and GM40282), National Human Genome Research Institute (HG004120 and HG002385), an NIH Pioneer Award (8DP1ES022577-04), National Science Foundation (HOMINID awards BCS-1032255 and BCS-0827436 and grant OCI-1053575), Howard Hughes Medical Institute, German Research Foundation (DFG) (KR 4015/1-1), Carl-Zeiss Foundation, Baden Württemberg Foundation and the Max Planck Society.


Article source: http://failedmessiah.typepad.com/failed_messiahcom/2014/09/new-branch-added-to-european-family-tree-123.html


Images of students milking cows and watching cows give birth are among Don Laughlin’s memories of Scattergood Friends School.

Laughlin, 91, said that in the 1940s and 1950s when he worked at Scattergood, he taught at the school, managed its farm and oversaw students’ work there. He said he remembers helping them learn how to do chores, such as feeding pigs on the farm and driving tractors, and that students were eager to lend him a hand.

“I always got easy volunteers for the farm,” he said.

Nowadays, the 125th anniversary of Scattergood Friends School is approaching. The school, which opened in 1890 and which sits on 35 acres of farm land, is likely the only Religious Society of Friends, or Quaker, school in Iowa. It offers students in grades nine-12 a boarding school or day school education.

Friends schools offer educations based in Quaker traditions throughout the U.S. The Quaker religion is a Christian denomination focused on ideals such as simplicity, social equality, pacifism and integrity that people practice in many forms, according to the Quaker Information Center website.

Iowa Yearly Meeting Conservative, a Quaker association, owns the not-for-profit school, and the school is governed by a school committee comprised primarily of Quakers.

Scattergood communications director Jody Caldwell said although some things at Scattergood have changed since 1890, many of the school’s core values remain unaltered. She said students and staff there still focus on traditional Quaker ideals and hold decision-making meetings rooted in Quaker heritage.

Caldwell said the school uses hands-on learning methods that sometimes incorporate the farm at the school. For example, she said students recently used algebra to analyze data related to production and soil testing at the farm.

“We are not a place that we want to sit in desks all the time and look at dusty text books,” she said.

School opens in 1890

During the late 1800s, Quakers near West Branch began planning to open a Quaker boarding school, according to a 1990 history of Scattergood Friends School penned by Robert Berquist, David Rhodes and Carolyn Smith Treadway.

The history includes a students’ first-person account of Scattergood penned shortly after the school opened. The student described waking up to “the twenty-minute bell,” attending breakfast and lessons and watching students rejoice or fret over letters received during mail delivery at recess.

Head of school Christine Ashley said Scattergood at this time focused on educating Quaker youth in West Branch, Whittier and other areas.

“This was a place where you were taught how to live the Quaker values and principles,” she said.

She said Quaker schools then aimed to keep young people “safely guarded and insulated from the evils of the world.”

However, Ashley said that this aim has changed. She said the school now focuses on helping students “be prepared to meet the challenges of the world.”

The school’s population also has changed since 1890 — only 20 percent of students and staff at the school are Quakers or have Quaker affiliations.

School closes in 1931 and refugee hostel opens

Scattergood Friends School closed during the Great Depression for “financial reasons” and reopened in 1939 as a refugee hostel for people fleeing from areas affected by Nazism, according to the written history.

A Scattergood pamphlet from that period reads that the hostel was a place where European refugees “could go for a few weeks or months to re-improve their English, learn to drive a car, and if need be, start retraining themselves for some new line of work before seeking a permanent place in American society.”

Ashley said during the 1930s, a group of “twenty-somethings” connected with the American Friends Service Committee in Washington D.C. and raised dollars for opening the hostel, which housed 168 people between 1939 and 1943.

“This was Iowa’s direct contribution, humanitarian contribution, to the war that had already spilled over in Europe,” she said.

Laughlin, who began working at Scattergood three years after the hostel closed, said the school served a key purpose as a refugee hostel. He said he heard the hostel was home to Jewish people fleeing Germany, and that refugees there faced challenges such as learning a new language and doing work unrelated to their areas of expertise while they adjusted.

“They just couldn’t practice their professions at all,” he said.

Scattergood from the 1940s to the 1970s

During the late 1940s and early 1950s, Ashley said the Quaker principles of integrity and peace “played out strongly” when Laughlin became a conscientious objector during a 1949 peacetime conscription, while he worked at Scattergood.

Laughlin said he didn’t agree with the draft and that he was sentenced to 18 months in prison for resisting, although he was released 12 months early.

“I think it was the right thing to do,” he said.

Laughlin said he recalls students and staff at Scattergood being sympathetic to his situation and said he returned to the school after his time in prison.

Ashley said during the 1960s at Scattergood, “hem lines rose,” and rules, including prohibitions on students listening to the radio more than once a week or standing within about 6 inches of a “friend of the opposite sex,” were lifted.

She said pranks also were common during this period, and that she’s heard stories of a group of students who unhinged a gate near the school and carried it into West Branch.

Current students at Scattergood

The student body is now made up of 40 young people from Iowa City, Chicago and countries around the globe such as Bolivia, Spain and Taiwan.

Socrates Bassuk, a senior who came to Scattergood from Chicago, said she had tried attending public and private schools in her hometown, but that she wasn’t happy with the experiences she had. She said she prefers her experience at Scattergood.

“It taught me how to be happy and do well in school and, like, just excel at life,” she said.

Bassuk said Scattergood’s history remains alive during decision-making meetings where students aim for consensus on issues such as assigning people to shovel snow in winter.

Staff at Scattergood say that as they prepare to celebrate the school’s 125th anniversary, they hope to get the word out about Scattergood and how the school works.

Caldwell said upcoming activities associated with the anniversary will include open house events starting in October on the first Thursday of every month at 10 a.m. She said staff asks residents who are interested in attending to R.S.V.P. Events also will include a large celebration in June.

Coriander Shapiro, a senior from Chicago, said she came to Scattergood this year after attending a large, chaotic school where she seldom saw the same peers twice as she moved from class to class.

“I felt like I was lacking a sense of community,” she said.

However, Shapiro said her first visit to Scattergood was “even cooler” than she expected and that her experience has helped her become a better person.

She said when she looks at old pictures of Scattergood, she can easily compare her own experiences to those of students who previously attended the school.

“It’s been around for so long, and it’s still doing awesomely, and I feel like it’s only going to keep getting better,” Shapiro said.

Reach Holly Hines at 887-5414 or hhines2@press-citizen.com.

If you go

What: Open house events at Scattergood Friends School

When: 10 a.m. on the first Thursday of each month starting in October

Staffask those interested to R.S.V.P. before attending

Article source: http://www.press-citizen.com/story/news/education/k-12/2014/09/21/scattergood-friends-school-still-goings-strong-years/16031005/


Paris officials have put up plastic panels on an iconic pedestrian bridge spanning the Seine river in front of the Louvre in an attempt to stop lovers sealing their passion with padlocks attached to the bridge.

City hall authorities are desperately trying to save the world famous Pont des Arts and other bridges from damage from the thousands of padlocks left there by tourists and some locals as a pledge to their eternal devotion.

Since 2008, when the craze first began, thousands of couples from across the world have visited the Pont des Arts every year and sealed their love by attaching a padlock carrying their names to its railing and throwing the key in the Seine.

But too much love can be a dangerous thing and the city authorities have been wrestling with the problem of how to halt the phenomenon, which is beginning to take its toll.

In June, police hurriedly ushered tourists off the Pont des Arts when a section of the footbridge collapsed under the weight of the padlocks, which now completely cover the 155-metre-(509-foot-)long bridge.

City official Bruno Julliard said Friday the city had decided “to experiment by placing Perspex panels to replace the metal grills” to which visitors attach their “love locks”.

“Two have been installed, a third will be fixed in the coming days,” he said.

Over Paris’s busy summer period this year, romantic tourists to the world’s most-visited city attached more than 700,000 love lock on several Paris bridges, say City Hall authorities.

This has resulting in “a lasting deterioration for our cultural heritage and a risk for visitors’ security”.

“On the Pont des Arts alone, 15 grills have had to be removed for safety reasons. Each of these panels were carrying nearly 500 kilogrammes (1,100 pounds), more than four times the maximum weight,” city hall said.

In a desperate bid to stop the phenomenon, Paris city hall officials in August urged lovers to upload “selfies” instead of attaching a love lock.

Javiera Pacheco, a tourist from Chile, who was visiting the city with her Italian boyfriend Marco, was not impressed with the new initiative as she placed their “Marco and Javiera” padlock on the bridge.

“You have to keep the love locks. It’s very romantic and Paris is known for that,” she said.

For a different reason, the new measures were not welcome for Singh Sharry. The 19-year-old Indian sells padlocks to love-struck couples hoping to leave a lasting monument to their passion in the City of Light.

“It’s the end of our little business and, I can tell you, it’s the end of tourism in Paris,” he complained.


Date created : 2014-09-20

Article source: http://www.france24.com/en/20140920-paris-fights-bridge-love-lock-trend-with-plastic-panels-pont-des-arts/

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PARIS (AP) — A mentally ill man fired his hunting rifle at a group of students on a class trip Friday, wounding two of them, one seriously, officials said.

A third student, whom officials initially said was shot, was treated for shock, according to Olivier Duchenoy, principal of the group’s Paris school, St. Thomas d’Aquin.

The shootings occurred on a street in the town of Vezelay, noted for its 12th-century basilica, in the Burgundy region 230 kilometers (145 miles) southeast of Paris.

Education Minister Najat Vallaud-Belkacem said three students, aged 16 and 17, were hospitalized after the shooting.

The shooter, a man in his 40s, holed himself up for hours in his house in the nearby village of d’Asquins before police were able to negotiate his surrender, officials said.

The mayor of d’Asquins, Isabelle Georgelin, told iTele TV station that the man had been hospitalized in the past for mental problems, stopped taking his medication and had acted strangely recently, for instance, dumping garbage in front of the hilltop basilica, which is a UNESCO World Heritage site that attracts pilgrims.

Article source: http://tdn.com/news/world/europe/french-students-struck-by-gunfire-on-school-trip/article_9f9d1f4d-d63a-5730-844d-90e2a594f60e.html

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It’s Hispanic Heritage Month, From the first explorations into North America nearly a century before Jamestown to the banning of Mexican-American Studies in Arizona, here’s 17 Latino historical events that every American should know.

  • 1

    1535, Spanish explorer Cabeza de Vaca (c.1490 – c.1557) and three others constitute the sole survivors of Panfilo de Narvaez’s ill-fated expedition to Florida. MPI via Getty Images

    What Happened: Hispanics, including mestizos, indigenous and Afro-descended people from the area today known as Mexico, explored North America almost a century before the British first founded Jamestown.

    Why It Matters: Hispanics aren’t foreigners in this country. Latinos, particularly those with Mesoamerican roots, have deeper roots in North America than those with other European backgrounds.

  • 2

    JOE KLAMAR via Getty Images

  • 3


    What Happened: Poet, revolutionary and Cuban nationalist José Martí spent four years in New York City, where he wrote for both English- and Spanish-language newspapers, developing ideas that would influence his thinking about the often tense relationship between the U.S. and Latin America.

    Why It Matters: Martí was one of Latin America’s greatest intellectuals, earning him a statue in front of Central Park in Manhattan.

  • 4

    People march in the National Puerto Rican Day Parade haul the flag of Puerto Rico Sunday, June 9, 2013, in New York. ASSOCIATED PRESS

    What Happened: Perhaps not for the most altruistic of reasons, the United States extended both citizenship and, shortly after, military conscription to Puerto Rico in 1917, as World War I raged in Europe.

    Why It Matters: Puerto Ricans are American just like anyone born in the 50 states.

  • 5

    What Happened: Octaviano Larrazolo of New Mexico became the first Hispanic elected to the U.S. Senate. As a politician, he pushed to boost Hispanic representation so that the political system would reflect the state’s population. He also helped write portions of the state’s constitution guaranteeing that people of Mexican descent wouldn’t be disfranchised.

    Why It Matters: Because score Team Latino!

  • 6

    Bill Clark via Getty Images

    What Happened: Before Brown v. Board of Education in 1954, the Supreme Court ruled it unconstitutional to segregate students of Mexican heritage into inferior schools. The plaintiff, Sylvia Mendez, sued after being turned away from a “whites only” public school in California .

    Why It Matters: The 1945 Supreme Court decision helped pave the way for Brown v. Board of Education and played a key role in making school segregation illegal.

  • 7

    Unidentified family members of Pvt. Felix Longoria of Three Rivers, Texas, observe a moment of silence beside his flag-draped casket in Arlington National Cemetery, Va., Feb. 16, 1949. (AP)

    What Happened: Private Felix Longoria was killed in the Philippines as World War II came to an end. When his body was recovered and returned to his hometown of Three Rivers, Texas, the director of the funeral home forbad the family from using the chapel because he feared white residents would disapprove.

    The G.I. Forum, a civil rights organization led by Hector P. Garcia, organized a campaign that caught the attention of then-U.S. Sen. Lyndon Johnson. He arranged for Longoria to be buried at Arlington National Cemetery.

    Why It Matters: This repudiation of anti-Mexican-American sentiment stands as a milestone in march toward the guarantee of Latino’ civil rights.

  • 8

    Fidel Castro with revolutionaries, Cuba, Photograph, Around 1960. Imagno via Getty Images

    What Happened: Following the triumph of the Cuban Revolution in 1959 and it’s sharp leftward turn toward Communism within the next two years,

    Why It Matters: More than one million Cubans left the island as the Revolution became more radical, with most of them settling in Miami, Fl., a city they transformed. Subsequent waves of Cubans migrated to the United States in the 1980s, with the Mariel boatlift, and the 1990s, after the fall of the Soviet Union upended the island’s economy.

  • 9

    Cesar Chavez, leader of the Delano grape pickers’ strike, smiles broadly following a meeting with California Gov. Edmund G. Brown, in background at right, in Sacramento, Calif., June 27, 1966. (AP Photo)

    What Happened: In 1965, Filipino and Latino farmworker unions joined in a strike, and latter a boycott of grapes in the Delano area of California to protest poor conditions. The five-year campaign ultimately succeeded in forcing the grape producers to sign union contracts.

    Why It Matters: This early victory helped secure the place of the United Farm Works and its leader Cesar Chavez key players in the Latino civil rights movement.

  • 10

    These youths, one stripped of all his clothes and the other badly beaten, fell victim to raging bands of servicemen who scoured the streets in Los Angeles, June 20, 1943, looking for and beating zoot suited youths. (AP)

    What Happened: In the 1940s, tensions in California rose between Chicanos and Anglo sailors living there. Authorities viewed many young Chicanos, who favored baggy zoot suits, as criminals. Sailors went around beating them up. The tensions eventually erupted into a week of rioting in June of 1943, when some 200 sailors descended upon Los Angeles and severely beat several “pachucos,” at times stripping the suits from their bodies. The violence was met with indifference from police.

    Why It Matters: The Zoot Suit Riots stand as a prominent example of the discrimination faced by the Mexican-American community that offers context for the Latino civil rights movement.

  • 11

    This undated photo released courtesy the Salazar family showing Ruben Salazar with his wife Sally and his children (AP)

    What Happened: During a riot in 1970, police shot prominent journalist Ruben Salazar with a tear gas canister while he was drinking a beer at the Silver Dollar Bar and Cafe in Los Angeles, killing him.

    Why It Matters: Salazar was one of the great Mexican-American journalists of his time, who covered local politics with the same vigor as he covered foreign wars. His killing is viewed by many as a symbol of the injustices committed against the Chicano community in California.

  • 12

    Pirates’ Roberto Clemente gets a handshake from third base coach Frank Oceak after his homerun in third inning of Saturday, Oct. 16, 1971 World Series game in Baltimore (AP)

  • 13

    Former President Ronald Reagan (AP)

    What Happened: In 1986, President Ronald Reagan signed an immigration reform into law that legalized the status of some 3 million people.

    Why It Matters: It proves that passing comprehensive immigration legislation is possible.

  • 14

    In this Thursday, December 26, 2013 photo, vehicles line to cross The Paso del Norte Bridge between El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juarez towards El Paso (AP)

    What Happened: The countries of Mexico, the United States and Canada signed a free trade agreement in 1994 that reduced trade barriers between the three countries.

    Though money was allowed to cross borders more freely, people were not. Millions of Mexican farm workers lost their jobs as cheap U.S. imports put Mexican farms out of business. Many of those migrants eventually wound up in the United States.

    Why It Matters: Many Americans think that Latinos leave their countries of origin in order to pursue the American dream. In fact, economic policies that dry up Latin American jobs drive illegal immigration more than the intangible lure of a foreign lifestyle.

  • 15

    Pro and anti Prop. 187 activists are separated by a police line during a in Los Angeles, Aug. 10, 1996 (AP)

    What Happened: California Gov. Pete Wilson (R) championed this draconian referendum that would have made it illegal to provide public services, including schools and hospitals, to undocumented immigrants. Challenged in the courts, the law never went into effect.

    Why It Matters: Prop 187 paved the way for a long series of anti-immigrant legislation championed by nativists generally allied with the Republican Party. These laws, that many Latinos view as an attack on their communities, help to explain why the GOP consistently underperforms among Hispanic voters.

  • 16

    Protesters gather to support the Tucson Unified School District (AP)

  • 17

    FREDERIC J. BROWN via Getty Images

    What Happened: This year, Latinos became the largest ethnic group in the state of California, overtaking non-Hispanic whites.

    Why It Matters: Latinos constantly deal with the misperception that we’re somehow more foreign than the other immigrant-descended people who live here. In fact, about two-thirds of U.S. Hispanics were born in this country. In places like California or New Mexico, where Latinos are the largest ethnic group, it’s become increasingly impossible to deny that Latinos are as American as everyone else.

Article source: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/09/19/latino-history_n_5850748.html

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Munitions and other artefacts from World War One and World War Two have been found during a raid on a residential garage in St Albans, Hertfordshire.

The joint investigation by police and English Heritage has been investigating illegal metal detecting in the UK and across the English Channel in Europe.

A 48-year-old man has been arrested on suspicion of stealing “heritage artefacts” from a site in Batford, near Harpenden.

An army bomb disposal unit removed items from the property on Wednesday, where the man was detained.

Robert Hall reports from the scene.

Article source: http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-29238850

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